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Where to buy gas not imported from the Middle East
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|Where do you stand as a US gasoline consumer? For 2008 (Jan-Sept) the USA consumed an average of 8,980,000 barrels of gasoline every day. (Note that we are ignoring diesel, jet fuel, home heating oil, asphalt, plastics, and all the other uses of oil.) With a population of 306,000,000, this works out to 0.029 barrels per day for every human in the US, on average. 0.029 x 42 gallons per barrel = 1.22 gallons of gasoline, every day, for every person. That's 446 gallons of gasoline per year for each person. I bought exactly 222.6 gallons of gasoline for 2008 so far, and I know I won't fill up again before the end of the year. How about you? Are you above or below the average per person of 446 gallons per year?|
Does the U.S. export oil? Surprisingly, yes - but the amount is trivial, about 20,000 barrels per day vs. our 10,000,000 and more b/d imports. All exported crude goes to Canada, where it is likely refined and sent back as gasoline. More info.
Essay: What's the Deal With Oil?
Why don't I have everything updated using the most recent data? Because I have to make a living, and with all the changes going on I'd do nothing but update this page. All the data are out there for anyone to find - I don't have a secret source. Explore the EIA Web Site.
In the time it takes most people to read this sentence, the world will have used up (forever) about 8,000 barrels - 336,000 gallons - of oil. At 1000 barrels per second, it's going fast.|
|MOST FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTION:|
I want to buy my gas from companies that don't import from the Middle East. Which ones are they?
Answer: There are essentially NO major-brand retail gas stations whose product derives from US sources only, and basically all of them have Middle East oil as a significant proportion of their source crude - because if refineries used only American oil, they would be incapable of making the volumes that we demand - a 60% shortfall. A few small regional refiner-producers may use MOSTLY American oil, but even they likely use purchased oil - with imported origins - to produce the volumes of gasoline that are demanded by the American public. In addition to all the crude imported, the U.S. must import about 66 million gallons of refined gasoline because our refineries can't make enough MORE.
EIA information. Further information and opinion here (including the bogus e-mail list that circulates).
|Most frequent question #2: How many gallons of gasoline in a barrel of oil? Answer: a 42-gallon barrel of oil makes about 19.5 gallons of gasoline. Details elsewhere on these pages.|
|Q: Who controls the price of oil - OPEC or the Big Oil companies?|
A: NEITHER. It's you and me. More More Gibson's opinion
Q: What can the average American do about it?
|This page - like all those in this site and like most on the web - is copyrighted and |
wholesale copying and re-posting as your own information will not be tolerated.
You are encouraged to use the information, and credit is appreciated.
|Data from the Energy Info Administration:|
The best source of accurate information
Leading suppliers of US imports
Top exporting countries
Top consuming countries
Top producing countries
US Refining capacity
US Production by state
and much much more
|Companies that import oil|
Sources of gasoline
How gasoline is priced
Sources of US oil imports
|Company-level import dataCrude Oil Data page|
UPDATE: Hiring of newly graduated geoscientists has increased dramatically in Fall 1996. FURTHER UPDATE: The "boomlet" of 1996-97 became the bust of 1998, when the price of oil fell to below $10.00 per barrel, and thousands were laid off. By late 1999, things were looking up again. The short-term of the cycle swings is taking many people by surprise. For much of 2000-2002, prices have been fairly stable in the $20s per barrel. 2005: Companies are once again using creative means to keep their personnel; with high prices, experienced geoscientists and engineers can, to some extent, write their own tickets.
US PRODUCTION, early 2002: About 5.9 million barrels of oil per day, plus about 2 million barrels of natural gas liquids and condensate; and 55 billion cubic feet of gas per day. Oil production is a decline from 8-9 million b/d in 1986.Update, 2005: at the end of 2005, US crude oil production stood at 4.86 million b/d, the lowest value in more than 50 years. Imports (10.01 million b/d) amounted to 67% of consumption. As shown in the figure at left, even when US production was at its peak in 1970 (and accounted for more than 40% of all the oil produced in the world), it could not keep up with consumption. Today's 21 million barrels per day consumption FAR outpaces our domestic production of 4.86 million barrels per day. Prudhoe Bay's contribution is shown in red. US oil consumption exceeds the total of the next 5 largest consumers - China, Japan, Russia, Germany, and India COMBINED. Source From 1990 to 2007, US production decreased by 31% at the same time as consumption increased by 24%.
|In 2003 the four largest U.S. refining companies [Click here for an Informative Quiz] controlled a little more than 40 percent of the nations refining capacity. In contrast, the top four companies in the auto manufacturing, brewing, tobacco, floor coverings and breakfast cereals industries controlled between 80 percent and 90 percent of the market. [Source]|
US crude-oil production capacity, about 5 million barrels per day, is accomplished with about 510,000 oil wells, averaging 10.5 barrels per well per day. (That's more than half of all the producing oil wells in the world. World Oil list of wells by country in 2000. The country with the most wells, after the US, is Russia at about 110,000; then China with around 80,000, and Canada with 68,000. World total producing oil wells is about 880,000.) Saudi capacity, at about 8-9 million barrels per day, is from 1500 wells averaging more than 5,000 barrels per well per day. The best well in the onshore 48 states is in Grant Canyon Field, Nevada, producing about 4000 barrels per day from sucrosic Devonian dolomites in a small fault block. UPDATE: 1997 discoveries in the Williston Basin are producing up to 6,000 barrels per day from Mississippian Lodgepole carbonate mounds. These are the best wells in the onshore 48 states in decades -- but the Gulf of Mexico is the US hot spot for current exploration and production. THE FACT THAT THE US ALREADY HAS 510,000 wells is just one reason why we cannot simply "drill more wells" to achieve a fictional energy independence, as many Americans naively suggest. Most of the oil in the US has already been found and produced - the peak of US oil production happened in 1970, and it can NOT be achieved again.
|How many gallons of gasoline come from a barrel of oil? |
Each 42-gallon barrel makes about 19½ gallons of gasoline. MORE
|The US uses up to 10 calories of fossil fuels to produce one calorie of food. Ponder the impact on our food supply of a declining oil supply. Source|
In terms of total US energy usage, the breakdown by source is given in the following table (for late 2001):
|Energy Source||Percentage of total|
|Natural Gas|| |
|Solar, Wind, etc.|
Standard Oil heritage of several multi-national oil companies,
following the 1911 break-up of the Standard Oil Trust.
|In the history of the world, according to AAPG presidential address, April 1993,
1000 billion barrels are known in the ground
1000 billion barrels are estimated undiscovered
World proved reserves: 1,081 to 1,293 billion barrels
2 trillion is a common number you see for unproduced oil - but by no means does everyone agree on that number. "Peak Oil" people say half of all that can be produced has been produced (or soon will be) and half remains - maybe 1 trillion produced, 1 trillion remaining. A "Peak Oil" site. One more And another.
|A note about numbers:|
You'll see statistics like those posted here that may be substantially different. You need to be aware of what you are comparing. Is it just crude oil production, importation, or consumption? Or is it crude + "natural gas liquids"? Or maybe it includes petroleum products, such as refined gasoline. Numbers do change from month to month and year to year, of course. Are you looking at Russia, or the Former Soviet Union (which includes Russia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, and other independent nations)? Is the percentage you find the percentage of consumption, or the percentage of imports? There are many, many different ways of looking at data. Just be aware.
Personal note about bias: When this page started, in 1996, it really was mostly "interesting oil statistics" - largest fields and so on. It has evolved, as my personal interests and those of the page's viewers have evolved, to be a hodgepodge of information about a lot of complex things. I have tried VERY HARD to make this page be objective and free of bias - but it is done by a human being, and it is impossible to remove all my bias, even though as a scientist (geologist) I try to do that.
By way of background, in the late 1990s I really thought the "peak oil" people were crazy, or at least "doomsayers" and pessimists. Oil exploration people (like me) tend to be optimistic - you have to be, since you fail so often. But in the past 5 to 7 years, I've come to feel, largely through creating this compilation, that the "peak oil" people are a lot closer to right than are the "sweetness-and-light-and-nothing-is-really-wrong" crowd. I don't KNOW that - but based on what I can see and read with my own eyes, there is little question that Americans' oil guzzling will bring us to a fall, likely sooner rather than later. So, there, now you know my bias. Read this page with that in mind - but please also know that I still am trying very hard to keep it as objective as possible.
WORLD PRODUCTION/CONSUMPTION: Production in 2004 averaged about 83.02 million barrels per day, about equal to the world consumption at 82.46 million barrels per day in 2004 (up from about 74 millon b/d in 2002) Source. Consumption is increasing at a faster rate than the increase in production. And at the end of 2005, World demand was expected to exceed world refinery capacity for the first time - demand of 84 million barrels per day vs 83.5 million barrels per day refinery capacity.
20 largest oil producers, in million barrels per day:
(source: mostly Oil & Gas Journal, World Oil, and EIA)
and 2004 rank
(billion barrels, 2006)
Includes Crude Oil, NGL,
Condensate, Refinery Gain
|1. Saudi Arabia||267 billion bbl||10.4 mb/d|
|2. Russia||60||9.3 mb/d|
|3. USA||21|| 8.7 mb/d|
Crude oil = <5.2 mb/d
|4. Iran||132||4.1 mb/d|
|5. Mexico||13||3.8 mb/d|
|6. China||18||3.6 mb/d|
|7. Norway||8||3.2 mb/d|
(includes tar sands)
|9. Venezuela||79||2.9 mb/d|
|10. United Arab Emirates||98||2.8 mb/d|
(some sources say 48 billion -
the difference is 5% of world reserves)
|12. Nigeria||36||2.5 mb/d|
|13. United Kingdom||4||2.1 mb/d|
|14. Iraq||115||2.0 mb/d|
|15. Other FSU|
Mostly Kazakhstan + Azerbaijan
|16. Algeria||12||1.7 mb/d|
|17. Brazil||11||1.5 mb/d|
|18. Libya||39||1.5 mb/d|
|19. Indonesia||4||1.1 mb/d|
|20. Angola||6||0.9 mb/d|
Prudhoe Bay = 13+ billion barrels. It is a broad culmination on the Barrow Arch, and the reservoirs are transgressive marine to non-marine conglomerates and sandstones of Triassic age. The reservoir contains a lot of gas, too - about 25 trillion cubic feet.
|Field, State||Cumulative Production|
+ Est. Reserves
|1. Prudhoe Bay, Alaska||13+ billion barrels|
|2. East Texas||5.1-6.0 billion barrels|
|3. Wilmington, California||2.8 billion barrels [or up to 3.0]|
|4. Midway-Sunset, California||2.8 billion barrels [or up to 3.5]|
|5. Kuparuk River, Alaska||2.6 billion barrels|
|6. Thunder Horse, Gulf of Mexico||1.5-2.0 billion barrels|
|7. Kern River, California||1.95 billion barrels [or up to 2.5]|
|8. Yates, West Texas||1.95 billion barrels|
|9. Belridge South, California||1.9 billion barrels|
|10. Wasson, West Texas||1.8 billion barrels|
|11. Elk Hills, California||1.5 billion barrels [or 1.3]|
|12. Panhandle, Texas||1.4 billion barrels|
The largest oil field in the world (Ghawar in Saudi Arabia) contains an estimated ultimate recoverable 75-85 billion barrels of oil, or nearly 6 times Prudhoe Bay, in Upper Jurassic shallow-water carbonates in a broad anticline.
Chevron is working with Kazakhstan and others to develop the huge Tengiz field near the Caspian Sea (estimates run from 15 to 26 billion barrels recoverable, from what amounts to an oil-filled paleo-atoll, or reef) with a goal of producing about 700,000 barrels per day from this one field -- equal to more than 10% of the oil production of the entire United States.
|Field, Country||Size estimate|
|1. Ghawar, Saudi Arabia|
Saudi fields overall are in decline at 2% to 8% a year. Source
|75-83 billion barrels|
|2. Burgan, Kuwait in decline||66-72 billion barrels|
|2a. Cantarell, Mexico in decline |
(often listed as a large complex
of multiple smaller fields)
|35 billion barrels OOIP|
18 billion recoverable
|3. Bolivar Coastal, Venezuela||30-32 billion barrels|
|4. Safaniya-Khafji, Saudi Arabia/Neutral Zone||30 billion barrels|
|5. Rumailia, Iraq||20 billion barrels|
|6. Tengiz, Kazakhstan significant production to come||15-26 billion barrels|
|7. Ahwaz, Iran in decline||17 billion barrels|
|8. Kirkuk, Iraq||16 billion barrels|
|9. Marun, Iran||16 billion barrels|
|9a. Daqing, China in decline||16 billion barrels|
|10. Gachsaran, Iran||15 billion barrels|
|11. Aghajari, Iran||14 billion barrels|
|12. Samotlor, West Siberia, Russia in decline||14-16 billion barrels|
|13.Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, USA in decline||13 billion barrels|
|13a. Kashagan, Kazakhstan significant production to come||13 billion barrels|
|14. Abqaiq, Saudi Arabia||12 billion barrels|
|15. Romashkino, Volga-Ural, Russia in decline||12-14 billion barrels|
|16. Chicontepec, Mexico||12 billion barrels|
|17. Berri, Saudi Arabia||12 billion barrels|
|18. Zakum, Abu Dhabi, UAE||12 billion barrels|
|19. Manifa, Saudi Arabia||11 billion barrels|
|20. Faroozan-Marjan, Saudi Arabia/Iran||10 billion barrels|
|21. Marlim, Campos, Brazil in decline||10-14 billion barrels|
|World||6,300 trillion cubic feet|
|1. Russia||1,680 trillion cubic feet (some say 2,300 tcf)|
|2. Iran||940 trillion cubic feet|
|3. Qatar||910 trillion cubic feet|
|4. USA||265 trillion cubic feet|
|5. Saudi Arabia||235 trillion cubic feet|
|6. United Arab Emirates||212 trillion cubic feet|
|7. Nigeria||176 trillion cubic feet|
|8. Algeria||161 trillion cubic feet|
|9. Venezuela||151 trillion cubic feet|
|10. Iraq||110 trillion cubic feet|
|11. Kazakstan||106 trillion cubic feet|
|12. Turkmenistan||102 (maybe 535) trillion cubic feet|
|13. Indonesia||90 trillion cubic feet|
|14. Malaysia||87 trillion cubic feet|
|15. Norway||84 trillion cubic feet|
|16. China||79 trillion cubic feet|
|Field, Country||Size estimate|
|1. North Dome - South Pars, Qatar-Iran||up to 1,200 trillion cubic feet (950 in Qatar)|
|2. Urengoy, West Siberia, Russia||>275 trillion cubic feet|
|3. Yamburg, West Siberia, Russia||prob. >200 trillion cubic feet|
|4. Orenburg, Volga Region, Russia||prob. >200 trillion cubic feet|
|5. Shtockmanov, Barents Sea, Russia||prob. >200 trillion cubic feet|
|6. Umm Shaif + Abu el-Bukush, Abu Dhabi||175 trillion cubic feet|
|7. Zapolyarnoye, West Siberia, Russia||150+ trillion cubic feet|
|8. Kharasevey, West Siberia, Russia||150+ trillion cubic feet|
|9. Bovanenko, West Siberia, Russia||125 trillion cubic feet|
|10. Medvezh'ye, West Siberia, Russia||100+ trillion cubic feet|
|11. Hassi R'Mel, Algeria||100 trillion cubic feet|
|12. South Pars, Iran||100 trillion cubic feet|
|13. Panhandle-Hugoton, USA (TX-OK-KS)||80 trillion cubic feet|
|14. Groningen, Netherlands||66 trillion cubic feet|
|15. Ghawar Oil Field, Saudi Arabia||60 trillion cubic feet|
|16. North Pars, Iran||48 trillion cubic feet|
|17. Dauletabad-Donmez, Turkmenistan||47 trillion cubic feet|
|18. Karachaganak, Kazakstan||46 trillion cubic feet|
|19. Shatlyk, Turkmenistan||35 trillion cubic feet|
|20. Yashlar, Turkmenistan||27 trillion cubic feet|
|21. Blanco (San Juan), USA (NM)||23 trillion cubic feet|
|22. Gazli, Uzbekistan||20 trillion cubic feet|
(data from EIA)
Consumption change from previous
Production change from previous
The Offshore US Gulf of Mexico has become one of the "hottest" exploration areas in the world, just a few years after many had declared it the "Dead Sea" for exploration potential. Dramatic improvements in 3-D Seismic technology (increasing success rates to as much as 80%, up from less than 40%) and deepwater drilling methodology are largely the basis for this resurgence. And several very nice discoveries have not hurt one bit. Reserves in discovered deep-water (>500 meters) fields alone are estimated at nearly 1.5 billion barrels, with two fields (Shell's Mars and BP's Crazy Horse, renamed Thunder Horse) at about 100,000,000 barrels or more. Where does oil enter the US? (external link)
(barrels/day in 2005 and % change from 2004)
Louisiana: 1,463,000 -1.6%|
Texas: 1,331,000 -6.7%
Alaska: 894,000 -5.1%
California: 723,000 -2.0%
Oklahoma: 177,000 0.0%
New Mexico: 171,000 -4.5%
Wyoming: 144,000 +2.1%
North Dakota: 91,000 +12.3%
Kansas: 88,000 -5.4%
Montana: 73,000 +14.1%
|Dick Gibson is available to speak on the topics on this page.|
Visit our Speaker's Bureau for details.
|Which companies import oil?|
ANSWER: Read this and this and this and this.
|NOTE ON IMPORTS FROM IRAQ: US oil imports from Iraq have fluctuated greatly over the past 15 years. In 1990, imports from Iraq accounted for about 6.4% of our imports. From 1991 to 1996, due to sanctions, Iraq provided NO exports to the US. In 1999 (average 6.7%), 2000 (5.4%), 2001 (6.7%), and 2002 (3.9% - yes, less than four percent), amounts varied a lot from month to month. More data at Energy Info. Administration|
In 2002, Canada led the world in our sources of imports, at 17%, with Saudi Arabia (13.7%), Mexico (13.5%), and Venezuela (12%) in a virtual three-way tie for second. The year before the percentages were Canada - 15.4%, Saudi Arabia - 14%, Venezuela - 13%, and Mexico - 12.1%. Canada has been the leader since at least 2001. In 2002, US imports from the Persian Gulf region amounted to 19.8 percent of our total imports. The same year, a total of 40% came from OPEC member nations -- which include countries such as Venezuela and Indonesia that are outside the Persian Gulf. More Information
While the countries on the map above supply the greatest proportion of US crude and products imports, in January to March 2006, the US also imported crude oil and/or refined products from Argentina, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Brunei, Cameroon, Chad, Chile, China (both mainland and Taiwan), Congo (Brazzaville), Costa Rica, Denmark, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Guatemala, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Libya, Lithuania, Malaysia, Midway Islands, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Oman, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Syria, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, Uruguay, Viet Nam, and Yemen. Source
Leading Oil Consumers
Leading Oil Importers
Leading sources of US imports
USA (20 million barrels per day)
USA (11.1 million b/d)
South Korea (2.2)
Saudi Arabia (14.5%)
|This page - like all those in this site and like most on the web - is copyrighted and |
wholesale copying and re-posting as your own information will not be tolerated.
You are encouraged to use the information, and credit is appreciated.
|The price of Crude is up - approaching $100 per barrel. |
This is because worldwide supply is tight and 1) gasoline demand in the US is up despite high prices - 4.3% more than 2003. Americans simply refuse to conserve. This is not trivial considering that the US, with 5% of the world's population, consumes 45% of the gasoline produced on earth. 2) Gasoline demand is surging in China, where crude oil imports increased 30% in 2003.
|Refinery capacity in the US (and in the world) is near its maximum. Hurricanes Katrina and Rita impacted some refineries. Even before Katrina, average US refinery capacity was much less than US gasoline consumption More info. Oil tanker capacity for trans-oceanic shipping is also 100% reserved for the forseeable future, and shipping costs have nearly tripled [more info].|
|The US deficit, around $500 billion in 2004, causes the value of the dollar to decline. Because oil is priced in dollars, no matter where in the world it comes from, producers want higher prices in order to maintain their income.|
|The US Government is buying at these high prices supplies for the strategic petroleum reserve. A minor impact, but some.|
|Local requirements for special gasoline blends to meet environmental regulations result in smaller batches, which are more expensive for refineries to produce. Applies especially to California.|
|Costs reflect distance from refineries (transportation cost). In the US, 50% of gasoline is refined in the Gulf Coast.|
|Variations reflect local taxes. Federal excise tax on gasoline is about 19’ per gallon; state tax averages about 23’ per gallon; in California there is an additional 7.5% sales tax.|
|Economic woes in Venezuela are impacting US imports more than problems in the Middle East. US imports from Venezuela were down 19% in 2003, and Venezuela, Mexico, Canada, and Saudi Arabia are the US's main suppliers, normally at about 15% each but Venezuela in 2003 only provided about 12% of our imports (see table above).|
|Any time there is a problem with a pipeline or refinery, it can impact the supply of gasoline at least in local markets, and the price can spike.|
|Credit card fees paid by retailers amount to about 3.5%, or 7 cents a gallon at $2.00 per gallon. This is more than enough to eliminate all profit for the retailer, and in many cases results in an actual loss of several cents per gallon -- absorbed either through increased pump prices or in other elements of a retailer's business. Retailers with no other sources of profit may go out of business, further restricting ability to deliver gasoline. So don't blame the corner gas station -- even the company-owned ones. The latter may absorb such losses through profits elsewhere in the system, but a loss is still a loss.|
|Even with all of this, the true price of gasoline has fallen more than 40% from its inflation-adjusted price of $3.11 per gallon in 1980-81. And in the US, at $2.50 per gallon (2005), we pay about one-half to one-third of the price western Europeans and others have paid for many years. Icelanders pay about $6.12 per gallon (2004). Much of that cost is in national taxes that support health care and other programs.|
|Although the price of oil is ultimately governed by supply and demand -- with the greatest demand in the US (25% of world oil consumption; 45% of world gasoline consumption) and two-thirds of US demand in the transportation sector -- nervousness on the part of oil traders also impacts the short-term price. For example, in early 2006 real (e.g., Nigeria's shut-in 500,000 barrels per day of production) and perceived possible (e.g., jitters over Iran and political issues in Venezuela and elsewhere) supply problems DO result in increased prices, as buyers are willing to pay higher prices for something that they think may soon be in shorter supply.|
|See also the EIA page, Primer on Gasoline Prices.|
Oil company profits: A perspective
Earnings, Revenues, Profits (Billions) for selected companies, recent quarter, 2005
Source: Bloomberg News, reported in AAPG Explorer Dec. 2005
Procter & Gamble
Oil industry average profit margin is about 8.2%; (3rd Q. '05)
for all US industry, the average is about 6.8%.
Profits in the oil industry were easily outpaced by those of the
Pharmaceuticals, Banks, Household Products, Software, Telecommunications,
Semiconductors, Consumer Services, and Food, Beverage and Tobacco sectors.
"Production cost" includes a world-wide average of US $7.35 per barrel in finding costs, $3.57 per barrel in lifting cost (what it takes to operate a producing well), and $1.00 in production taxes per barrel. 2003 numbers from EIA. It is difficult to find separate figures for refining cost and profit, and the other cost/profit breakdowns, so the numbers are guesses but the totals for each category reflect percentages determined by the EIA (percentages for previous years shown in the graphic from EIA - I based the numbers in the table on $2.70 a gallon and percentages based on the most recent information I could find - 18% refining, 16% distribution, marketing, and retailing). If anyone has a good breakdown of transportation, marketing, and retailing costs and profits, or other data sources, please let me know. See also the EIA Primer on Gasoline Prices and this article and this GAO report and This One and another. And Gas Q&A. See also Who sets the price of oil?
This page offers an April 2006 breakdown of the components of the price of a gallon of gasoline: 54% is the price of crude; 21% is the cost of refining; 2% is the cost of transportation; 17% is taxes; they don't list a cost for retailing and marketing; and profit to refiner, transporter, and retailer is 6%. This page shows a breakdown of the price of a gallon of gasoline in California - and makes very clear that transporters, marketers, and retailers are making very little. When transportation costs (AND profit) + marketing cost (AND profit) + retailer cost (AND profit) adds up to three cents a gallon, you know they are not making much.
|Expense||Amount per gallon|
|State taxes (avg. 23¢)||6’ to 39’ details|
|Local taxes||0 to 20’|
|World oil export leaders and their reliance on the U.S. consumer market|
(numbers are in million barrels per day, 2004 data from EIA)
chart ©2006 Gibson Consulting
|Country||Net Oil Exports||U.S. Imports||Reliance on U.S. Market|
Want to know more?|
Gibson Consulting recommends: Read The Prize, by Daniel Yergin.
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Background image of drilling well in Utah in 1981 © 2000 by Dick Gibson