Richard I. Gibson's Resume
RICHARD I. GIBSON
301 North Crystal St.
Butte, Montana 59701
Phone & FAX: (406) 723-9639
Central High School, Flint, Michigan. Graduated with high distinction, 1966.
Flint Junior College, Flint, Michigan. 1966-68.
Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana. 1968-72; B.S. Geology, 1971; 29 semester hours graduate credit (2 years).
University of California, Davis, California. 1972-73; 24 quarter hours graduate credit (1 year).
HONORS AND AWARDS
National Honor Society -- High School.
Alvin M. Bentley Memorial Merit Scholarship -- Junior College.
Indiana U. Geologic Field Station Scholarship (1969).
President, Indiana U. Geology Club (1969-70).
Honorable Mention, USGS-NAGT Field Course Competition (1969).
First Prize for exhibit in Educational Category, Houston Gem and Mineral Society Show (1977).
Award for Long and Outstanding Service, The Tobacco Root Geological Society (1979).
Honorable Mention, Houston-Galveston Area Photography Competition (1980).
Gulf Oil Incentive Compensation Special Bonus Award (1981).
Outstanding Young Man in America (1982).
Who's Who in the South and Southwest (1982-85); in the West (1991-present).
Honorable Mention, National Park Service National Historic Landmark Photo Competition (2007).
Clark Fork Watershed Education Project, certificate of appreciation (2006).
Montana History Club Award (2015).
Butte America Foundation, BAmF of the Year (2017).
Tobacco Root Geological Society Founder's Award (2018).
Co-founder, The Tobacco Root Geological Society
- President, 1974-77; Secretary of Board of Directors, 1977-81; Board member 1974-1984 and 2000-2014; Co-Editor 2004-2013
Indiana University Geology Advisory Board (1977-1989, 1992-2004)
- Vice-President, 1997-98; President, 1999-2000
Geological Society of America 1978-2003
American Association of Petroleum Geologists
- member, Committee on Geophysical Integration (1993-98)
- Co-Editor, monograph "Gravity & Magnetics Exploration Case Histories"
Society of Exploration Geophysicists (to 2001)
- co-organizer, Grav-Mag workshop, SEG Denver 1996
Denver International Petroleum Society (to 2000)
Wyoming Geological Association to 2002
Montana Geological Society to 2004
Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists (to 2000)
Society of Houston Potential-Field Geophysicists
Vernacular Architecture Forum
Butte-Silver Bow Historic Preservation Commission
Butte Citizens for Preservation and Revitalization
Mai Wah Society
Butte Restoration Alliance
Society for Industrial Archaeology
Other historical & architecture groups
8000+ edits on Wikipedia
Denver Geophysical Society (to 2000)
Computer-Oriented Geological Society (to 1999)
Publisher, Editor (1984-91) of Life After Gulf, alumni newsletter for ex-Gulf Oil employees (approx. 500 subscribers).
PUBLICATIONS and Editing
(does not include extensive in-house, proprietary reports. See below under Domestic and International Experience for list of projects. For non-techincal writing, including geoscience, architecture, and other topics, see the writing index.)
Stone Analysis: Usual and Unusual Stones, with M.J. Sullivan and others. American Urological Association Western Sect. meeting program, June 1973. This is actually an explanatory scientific exhibit, later presented to other AUA meetings. AWARDS: First Prize for a clinical investigation; Honorable Mention as exhibit for educational purposes.
Descriptive Human Pathological Mineralogy, by R.I. Gibson, 1974, American Mineralogist, 59:1177-1182.
Monetite as Urinary Calculi, 1974, Carl W. Beck, W.P. Mulvaney, Robert K. Rhamy, and R.I. Gibson, Jour. of Urology, 111:673-675.
Basement Structures Interpreted from Gravity and Magnetic Data: Relationship to Geologic History of the Great Basin, Utah and Nevada, USA, and Regional Interpretation of Magnetic Data in Idaho, USA, by R.I. Gibson, presented at 4th International Conference on Basement Tectonics, Oslo, Norway, August 1981. The latter paper was also presented at the 6th Annual Meeting of the Tobacco Root Geological Society, Pocatello, Idaho, September 1981.
Basement Control of the Sevier Orogenic Belt in Utah, F. Picha and R.I. Gibson, 1983: GSA Rocky Mtn. Sec. Abstracts with programs.
Cordilleran Hingeline: Late Precambrian Rifted Margin of the North American Craton and its Impact on Depositional and Structural History, Utah and Nevada, F. Picha and R.I. Gibson, 1985: Geology, v. 13, no. 7, p. 465-468.
Influence of preexisting tectonic trends on geometries of Sevier Orogenic Belt and its foreland in Utah, F. Picha and R.I. Gibson, 1985: AAPG Bulletin (abs.), v. 69, no. 5, p. 859.
Basement Tectonic Controls on Structural Style of the Laramide Thrust Belt Interpreted from Gravity and Magnetic Data, by R.I. Gibson, 1987, Wyoming Geol. Assoc. Guidebook, p. 27-35.
Integrated Model of the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, S.C., by J.M. Spaw, K.M. Skinner, C.S. Cigler, and R.I. Gibson: Oak Ridge Model Conference, Proceedings, October 1988.
Quantifying Shoreline Changes using Image Analysis Technology, by W.F. Buckingham, R.L. Pawlowicz, and R.I. Gibson: National Conference on Geographic Information Systems, San Antonio, November 1988.
What We Did (with Microcomputers) on our Summer Vacations: 1984-88, by R.W. Lankston, M.T. Lankston, and R.I. Gibson: GSA South-Central Section Mtg., Stillwater, OK, March 1990.
Cincinnati Arch Consortium, Gravity and Magnetic Interpretation: Report by R.I. Gibson for CAC (Indiana, Ohio, & Kentucky Geological Surveys) East Continent Rift Program, 8 p., 1991.
Analogs to Tengiz Field in Magnetic Data; Basement-involved Normal Faulting in the Turgay Basin; and Applications of Regional Magnetic Data to Hydrocarbon Exploration in the Former USSR: SEG Moscow '92, Int'l. Conf. & Expos. on Expl. & Devel. Geophysics, Moscow, Russia, July 1992, Technical Abstracts (3 papers by R.I. Gibson).
Origins of the Tobacco Root Geological Society: Northwest Geology, Vol. 22, 1993, p. 1-3. By R.I. Gibson with contributions from Bob & Marian Lankston.
Structural styles of the West Siberian Rift System and their impact on hydrocarbon accumulation: Presented at the International AAPG meeting, Denver, June 1994
Subsurface geological interpretations, Pantex Plant, Texas, for expedited environmental site characterization; Well-site geologist reports: Internal reports, Argonne National Laboratory, 1994-1995.
Basement Tectonics and Hydrocarbon Production in the Williston Basin: An Interpretive Overview: by R.I. Gibson, 7th International Williston Basin Symposium, 1995 Guidebook, p. 3-9.
Geologic Applications of Gravity and Magnetics: Case Histories: Edited by R.I. Gibson and P.S. Millegan, 1998. AAPG Studies in Geology #43 and SEG Geophysical Reference Series #8, 175 p. with numerous short notes by the editors. The book received an award in 1999 from the Society of Technical Communications.
Rift-stage structures interpreted from magnetic data in the West Siberian Basin: by R.I. Gibson, in Geologic Applications of Gravity and Magnetics: Case Histories, edited by R.I. Gibson and P.S. Millegan, 1998. AAPG Studies in Geology #43 and SEG Geophysical Reference Series #8, 1998.
Gravity and magnetics in oil exploration: A historical perspective: by R.I. Gibson, in Geologic Applications of Gravity and Magnetics: Case Histories, edited by R.I. Gibson and P.S. Millegan, 1998. AAPG Studies in Geology #43 and SEG Geophysical Reference Series #8, 1998.
Utility in exploration of continent-scale data sets: by R.I. Gibson, in Geologic Applications of Gravity and Magnetics: Case Histories, edited by R.I. Gibson and P.S. Millegan, 1998. AAPG Studies in Geology #43 and SEG Geophysical Reference Series #8, 1998.
Magnetic frequency-depth relationship; Mississippi Salt Basin; Kentucky Basement; Mag susceptibility contrast versus structure; Nash Dome: by R.I. Gibson, short notes in Geologic Applications of Gravity and Magnetics: Case Histories, edited by R.I. Gibson and P.S. Millegan, 1998. AAPG Studies in Geology #43 and SEG Geophysical Reference Series #8, 1998.
Exploration takes to the skies: by R.I. Gibson
and Dale E. Bird, GIS Asia Pacific, October/November 1998, p. 22-24.
Northwest Geology, Volume 33, 2004: Edited by Richard
I. Gibson and Robert C. Thomas. Procedings volume, 29th Annual Field Conference, White Sulphur Springs, Montana, The Tobacco Root Geological Society, 110 p.
Preliminary Geologic Map of the Ringling 30' x 60' Quadrangle, Central Montana (PDF), 2004: by Catherine McDonald, David A. Lopez, Richard B. Berg, and Richard I. Gibson. Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 511, map scale 1:100,000.
Northwest Geology, Volume 34, 2005: Edited by Richard
I. Gibson and Robert C. Thomas. Procedings volume, 30th Annual Field Conference, Sun River Canyon-Choteau, Montana, The Tobacco Root Geological Society, 133 p.
Northwest Geology, Volume 35, 2006: Edited by Richard
I. Gibson and Robert C. Thomas. Procedings volume, 31st Annual Field Conference, Libby, Montana, The Tobacco Root Geological Society, 123 p.
Northwest Geology, Volume 36, 2007: Edited by Robert C. Thomas and Richard
I. Gibson. Procedings volume, 32nd Annual Field Conference, Dillon, Montana, The Tobacco Root Geological Society, 272 p.
Mesozoic sedimentation in southwest Montana, 2007, by R.I. Gibson: Northwest Geology, Volume 36, 2007, Edited by Robert C. Thomas and Richard
I. Gibson. Procedings volume, 32nd Annual Field Conference, Dillon, Montana, The Tobacco Root Geological Society, 272 p.
Northwest Geology, Volume 37, 2008: Edited by Robert C. Thomas and Richard
I. Gibson. Procedings volume, 33rd Annual Field Conference, Red Lodge, Montana, The Tobacco Root Geological Society, 172 p.
Northwest Geology, Volume 38, 2009: Edited by Bruce E. Cox and Richard
I. Gibson. Procedings volume, 34th Annual Field Conference, Philipsburg, Montana, The Tobacco Root Geological Society, 158 p.
Northwest Geology, Volume 39, 2010: Edited by Bruce E. Cox and Richard
I. Gibson. Procedings volume, 35th Annual Field Conference, Anaconda, Montana, The Tobacco Root Geological Society, 122 p.
Northwest Geology, Volume 40, 2011: Edited by Larry N. Smith and Richard
I. Gibson. Procedings volume, 36th Annual Field Conference, The Superior Area, Montana, The Tobacco Root Geological Society, 162 p.
Northwest Geology, Volume 41, 2012: Edited by Marie M. Garsjo and Richard
I. Gibson. Procedings volume, 37th Annual Field Conference, Yellowstone National Park, The Tobacco Root Geological Society, 160 p.
Northwest Geology, Volume 42, 2013: Edited by Reed S. Lewis, Marie M. Garsjo, and Richard
I. Gibson. Procedings volume, 38th Annual Field Conference, Belt Symposium IV, The Tobacco Root Geological Society, 406 p.
Tour Guide: Old Butte Historical Adventures Walking tours (2006-2016); tour guide and trolley driver for Butte Chamber of Commerce (2009-2015) - approximately 25,000 visitors served. Guide, docent, interpreter for many other organizations and projects in Butte, Montana.
French: read, write, speak well.
Russian and Arabic: general understanding of alphabets; basic knowledge of conversation.
Experienced HTML user. Developed and wrote this web site; Previous responsibility for other websites: Old Butte Historical Adventures, Tobacco Root Geological Society, Butte CPR, Butte Restoration Alliance and Mai Wah Society, Indiana University Dept. of Geological Sciences, IU Geologic Field Station, and World Museum of Mining and other websites.
Experienced user of state-of-the-art computer image analysis system for petrography, GIS, and other applications.
Author of articles in non-technical magazines (e.g., Grand
Canyon Hike, published in Great Expeditions, 1987; Antimony,
in Earth magazine, 1998) and in trade journals (e.g., Rocky Mountain Oil Journal,
1996). Co-author (with Irene Scheidecker) of Historic Stained
Glass in Selected Houses of Worship, Butte, Montana, published by Butte
CPR. 2016-present, weekly articles (total 185+) on Butte History for Montana Standard newspaper
Author of book, History of the Earth, a 366-day Perpetual Calendar (1994; converted to 397 audio podcasts in 2014-18) What Things Are Made Of (2011). Lost Butte, Montana (The History Press, 2012)
Geologist Study Guide for Smithsonian Journeys in Iceland, Alaska, and Northern Rockies.
Portrayed Ramses II as costumed, in-character interpreter of exhibition at Denver Museum of Natural History, 1987-88. History presentations in Butte, 2003-present.
Volunteer editor (hundreds of hours total), Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, 2001-2004. Maps and reports.
House Geologist, Quarry Brewing Company
December 1989 - present: Owner, Gibson Consulting and President, Gibson Consulting Inc. Gravity and magnetic interpretation, including comprehensive continent-scale studies in the Former Soviet Union, USA, Africa, China, and South America (detailed list of projects below). Also (1989-2002) Instructor, Indiana University Geological Field Courses in Montana (permanent Resident Manager/Geologist April 1999-May 2003); half-time geologist for Argonne National Laboratory 1994-96; associate of Thomasson Partner Associates; volunteer editor, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, 2001-2004.
2004-2005: Education Director, World
Museum of Mining. Lead field trips, museum tours, give lectures, research
questions, and maintain web site.
2003-2007: Study Guide for Smithsonian Journeys in Iceland, Alaska, and Western US. Professional tour guide, Old Butte Historical Adventures, 2006-present; Butte Chamber of Commerce trolley tour driver, 2009-present.
May 1989 - December 1991: President of Everest Geotech.
November 1984 - January 1989: Director of Gravity & Magnetics for Everest Geotech, Denver and Houston. Perform tectonic interpretations of gravity and magnetic data and integrate them with other disciplines; plan programs involving such data; conduct training courses in gravity and magnetic interpretation (list below). Also work as image analyst for igneous rocks, concrete, air photos and other materials.
September 1976 - May 1984: Geophysicist, Gulf Research and Development and Gulf Oil Exploration and Production Company, Houston, Texas. Regional integrated tectonic and geologic interpretation of gravity and magnetic data from around the world, with special emphasis on western US. Seismic interpretation in parts of the Thrust Belt in Montana and Utah; seismic stratigraphic interpretation in the Georges Bank area, US East Coast. Also: instruction for Gulf's Experience Broadening Gravity and Magnetics course (taught 16 times) and for field trips (helped lead and organize six 1-week long and five 2-day trips); coordination and editing of gravity and magnetic data assemblies; consultation on geophysical and tectonic problems throughout the corporation.
March 1975 - September 1976: Geophysicist, Aero Service Corporation, Houston, Texas. Geologic interpretation of Werner deconvolution profiles of aeromagnetic data from around the world.
March 1971 - February 1975: Mineralogist, Beck Analytical Services, Bloomington, Indiana and Davis, California. Determined minerals present and their sequences in over 20,000 samples of human kidney stones and other biological mineral concretions. Techniques: X-ray powder diffraction, polarizing microscopy, crystallographic techniques.
September 1970 - January 1972: Associate Instructor, Indiana University Geology Dept. Conducted labs in mineralogy and petrology, including crystallography, identification, and elementary optical mineralogy, for geology majors.
Summers, 1970 and 1971: Associate Instructor, I.U. Geological Field Station. Geologic mapping and teaching near Cardwell, Montana.
August-September 1969: Geophysical Field Assistant, I.U. Geological Field Station. Assisted seismic survey of Tertiary graben in southwest Montana.
February 1967 - September 1968: Geology Lab Assistant, Flint Junior College. Lapidary, thin sectioning, mineral and rock identification, create and set up museum displays, drafting, heavy mineral separation, vertebrate, invertebrate, plant and microfossil identification and preservation.
SPECIAL EDUCATION AND SHORT COURSES
Gulf Experience Broadening Seismic Course, January 1977.
AAPG-SEG Petroleum Exploration School, Houston, April 1977.
Structural Geology Course, Houston, January 1978.
Effective Oral Communication Course, Houston, May 1978.
Training the Trainer Workshop, Houston, January 1980.
Fundamentals of Modern Supervision, Columbia Lakes, TX, May 1982.
Seismic Facies Analysis, Houston, March 1984.
Origin & Evolution of Sedimentary Basins, Houston, April 1985.
Image Vectorization and Analysis Training, Houston, March 1987.
Photography, Antique geology maps & books, Writing, Hiking, Backpacking, Canoeing, Skiing, Science Fiction; collecting stamps, coins, minerals, and Gulf Oil memorabilia.
USA Basement tectonic interpretation of 48 states for planning exploration strategy and play generation. Used published gravity and magnetic data for proprietary, non-exclusive study. 162-page report with 30 maps (1988). More
ALASKA Interpreted profiles and maps from 5 aeromagnetic surveys, including deep basement and shallow magnetic (sedimentary) horizon.
OFFSHORE WEST COAST Interpreted magnetic data from 10 magnetic surveys from Canada to Mexico. Special emphasis on California Borderlands; included gravity interpretation there and in offshore Santa Maria Basin.
GREAT BASIN Integrated tectonic interpretation and prospect generation in Nevada and Utah. One recommended location was the site of the later discovery of Grant Canyon Field. Used gravity, magnetic, and other data. Multiple projects, ranging from a year of work as a Gulf Oil employee (1978-79) to multiple valleys for play and prospect generation (1984-2011). More on Nevada and Railroad Valley
OKLAHOMA-KANSAS Basement tectonic interpretation for play generation in Arbuckle section and equivalents.
UINTA BASIN Basement tectonic interpretation of gravity and magnetic data; later used for prospect generation at three locations.
GREEN RIVER BASIN Tectonic interpretation in Green River, Washakie, Sand Wash, and Piceance Creek Basins. Play generation involving facies distribution of Cretaceous sands and structural development in sub-upthrust plays. More
S.W. MONTANA Evaluation and interpretation of a magnetic survey in Jefferson & Centennial Valleys.
CRAZY MTS. BASIN Seismic interpretation for lease evaluation and prospect generation; 300 miles of seismic data integrated with aeromagnetics.
WESTERN MONTANA Integrated tectonic interpretation of the western third of the state. Play and prospect generation in Montana Disturbed Belt and in SW Montana. Interpretation of high-res magnetic survey for diamond exploration in NW Montana.
UTAH HINGELINE Gravity, magnetic, and seismic interpretation in central Utah hingeline. Mapped thrust windows and regional tectonic features.
WEST TEXAS Tectonic interpretation of gravity and magnetic data.
CENTRAL TEXAS Lithologic and tectonic interpretation of magnetic data for training field trip.
GULF OF MEXICO Various regional evaluations of central and eastern Gulf; also 1998 Satellite Gravity interpretation for whole Gulf.
GEORGES BANK Seismic stratigraphic analysis of post-rift sedimentary column, including probable reef complex.
NW ARIZONA Integrated interpretation of gravity and magnetic data.
MIDLAND BASIN Prospect enhancement using gravity & magnetic data and tectonic concepts.
WYOMING-UT-ID THRUST BELT Detailed interpretation of gravity and magnetic data for play and prospect generation.
SAVANNAH RIVER PLANT, S.C. Interpretation of magnetic data to aid petrologic and well-log study of nuclear plant site.
APPALACHIAN BASIN Integrated interpretation of gravity and magnetic data for play and prospect generation.
PARADOX BASIN Integrated interpretation of gravity and magnetic data for basin analysis.
PICEANCE CREEK BASIN Interpretation of magnetic data for exploration.
VAL VERDE BASIN Interpretation of gravity data for prospect enhancement.
NORTH-CENTRAL MONTANA Interpretation of detailed, high-resolution magnetic survey for diamond exploration.
AFRICA Detailed regional interpretation of the gravity map of the entire continent. 70-page proprietary report; 21 map sheets (1989). More
SATELLITE GRAVITY INTERPRETATIONS Detailed, play-oriented basin analyses for many areas (1997-2005) including West Africa (Morocco to Namibia), Nile Delta, Gulf of Mexico, South China Sea and Java Sea areas (proprietary non-exclusive studies integrating magnetic data. More), eastern South America (Trinidad to Uruguay), coasts of India (including Pakistan and Bangladesh), the Black Sea, Eastern Canada, East Africa, and North Africa (Atlantic coast of Morocco to Egypt).
USSR Basement tectonic interpretation of magnetic map of the entire former Soviet Union. Comprehensive oversized atlas-style report with associated products available on a proprietary, non-exclusive basis. Other analyses of parts of the former Soviet Union, including detailed integrated tectonic analysis of the Caspian Region. (1990-94).
CHINA Regional and concession-level integrated gravity-magnetic interpretation of the eastern half of the country (1995).
SOUTH AMERICA Detailed regional interpretation of the gravity map of the entire continent (1992).
IRAN Interpretation of about 50,000 line miles of aeromagnetic data for both hydrocarbon and ferrous mineral exploration.
SICILY Aeromagnetic data interpretation.
EGYPT (Red Sea) Mostly offshore aeromagnetic data interpretation for hydrocarbon exploration.
EGYPT (Gulf of Suez) Excrutiatingly detailed magnetic modeling for prospect generation.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA Interpreted 3 aeromagnetic surveys for hydrocarbon play and prospect generation.
BRAZIL Interpreted shipborne gravity data in block-faulted area.
NORTH SEA Supervised compilation of all available magnetic data, France to Spitsbergen, Norway to Iceland.
INDONESIA Magnetic modeling and rock susceptibility study in the Natuna Sea.
AUSTRALIA Supervised integrated interpretation of gravity and magnetic data in two areas of Canning Basin.
WEST AFRICA Supervised assembly of all available gravity and magnetic data.
BELIZE Prospect generation based on detailed magnetic and tectonic evaluation.
OMAN Play and prospect generation based on gravity and magnetic data at and beyond the edge of an ophiolite nappe.
TUNISIA Interpretation of shipborne magnetic data.
FRANCE Tectonic interpretation of gravity and magnetic data, Aquitaine Basin.
TEACHING AND OTHER EXPERIENCE
3-5-Day Gravity and Magnetic Courses (through Everest Geotech and Gibson Consulting)
1986: Texaco USA, Los Angeles, California
Public Course (IHRDC), London, England
1987: Oil & Natural Gas Commission, Dehra Dun, India
Marathon Oil Co., Houston, Texas
Marathon Oil Co., London, England
1988: ARCO Oil & Gas, Bakersfield, California
Public Course, Houston, Texas
ARCO Oil & Gas, Midland, Texas
1990: UNOCAL International, Los Angeles, California
Marathon Oil Co., Houston, Texas
1993 UNOCAL, Sugar Land, Texas
1995 Indiana University, Bloomington (12 hrs / 3 weeks)
1996 GSA Meeting, Denver (1 day)
1998 Marathon Oil Co., Houston, Texas
1999 Marathon Oil Co., Houston, Texas
Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Arkansas Geophysical Field Exercise in Montana (1986-88) (4-week course).
Instructor, Indiana University Geological Field Station, Montana (1989-2002) (G429: 6-week geologic mapping course, average 50+ students per session; also: 1999-2002, geologic instruction for G329, field environmental course).
Assistant Instructor, Introduction to Geologic Mapping in Structurally Complex Terrains, a field workshop for professional geoscientists conducted in Montana (7 days, 1994-1998, not every year).
Study Guide for Smithsonian Journeys in Iceland, Alaska, Northern Rockies, Western Parks.
AAPG Visiting Geologist, 1995-2007. Technical talks and oil industry discussions at university geoscience departments, including Winona State U., St. Cloud State U., U. of Wisconsin Eau Claire, U. of Tennessee, Oxford College of Emory University, Richard Stockton College (NJ), Lafayette College, Indiana University, University of Iowa, University of Montana, and Eastern Washington U.
Image analysis of volcanic tuffs from southern Nevada for nuclear waste repository site characterization.
Image analysis of concretes for determination of air-void distribution.
Image analysis applications to Remote Sensing and GIS technology.
Stratigrapher & Well-site geologist for Expedited site characterization of Pantex Nuclear Weapons Plant, for Argonne National Laboratory (1994-96).
Resident Manager, Indiana University Geologic Field
Station, Cardwell, Montana (1999-2003)
Volunteer Editor, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, 2001-2004.